Transactions with Spring and JPA (@Transactional)
Transactions with Spring and JPA (@Transactional)

Learn how Spring and JPA work together to provide seamless transaction management in a Spring application. Understand the concept of transactions and how they ensure data integrity and consistency. Configure transactions with Spring and JPA by setting up a data source, EntityManagerFactory, and TransactionManager. Use annotations to define transactional behavior and control transaction propagation and rollback.

Discover the power of Spring’s declarative transaction management and focus on your business logic without worrying about low-level transaction handling. Embrace the power of transactions in your Spring application with JPA for data integrity and consistency.

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When it comes to working with databases in a Spring application, one of the key aspects to consider is managing transactions. Transactions ensure data integrity and consistency, allowing us to perform multiple database operations as a single atomic unit of work. In this blog post, we will explore how Spring and JPA (Java Persistence API) work together to provide seamless transaction management.

Understanding Transactions

Transactions are a fundamental concept in database management systems. They allow us to group multiple database operations into a single unit of work that is either committed as a whole or rolled back if any operation fails. Transactions ensure that data remains consistent and reliable, even in the face of concurrent access and system failures.

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Spring provides a powerful and flexible transaction management framework that integrates seamlessly with JPA. With Spring’s declarative transaction management, we can define transaction boundaries using annotations or XML configuration, making it easier to manage transactions without writing boilerplate code.

Configuring Transactions with Spring and JPA

To enable transaction management in a Spring application using JPA, we need to configure a few components:

  1. DataSource: We need to configure a data source that provides the connection to the database. Spring offers various options for configuring a data source, including connection pooling libraries like HikariCP and Apache DBCP.
  2. EntityManagerFactory: The EntityManagerFactory is responsible for creating and managing the EntityManager instances. It is typically configured with JPA provider-specific properties and the data source.
  3. TransactionManager: The TransactionManager handles the transaction management for JPA. It coordinates the transaction boundaries and ensures that transactions are committed or rolled back appropriately.

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Once we have these components configured, we can start using transactions in our Spring application.

Using Transactions in Spring and JPA

Spring provides several ways to work with transactions, but the most common approach is using annotations. By simply adding the @Transactional annotation to a method or class, we can define the transactional behavior.

For example, let’s say we have a service class that performs some database operations:

public class ProductService {

  private final ProductRepository productRepository;

  public ProductService(ProductRepository productRepository) {
    this.productRepository = productRepository;

  public void saveProduct(Product product) {
    // Perform some database operations;

In the above code, the @Transactional annotation ensures that the saveProduct method runs within a transaction. If any exception occurs during the method execution, the transaction will be rolled back, undoing any changes made to the database.

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We can also control the transaction behavior using additional attributes of the @Transactional annotation. For example, we can specify the isolation level, propagation behavior, and rollback rules.

Transaction Propagation

Transaction propagation defines how transactions are managed when multiple methods are invoked within the same transactional context. Spring provides different propagation behaviors, such as REQUIRED, REQUIRES_NEW, SUPPORTS, and more.

For example, if we have a service method that calls another service method, we can specify the transaction propagation behavior:

public class OrderService {

  private final ProductService productService;

  public OrderService(ProductService productService) {
    this.productService = productService;

  public void createOrder(Order order) {
    // Perform some database operations for order creation

In the above code, the createOrder method is marked as @Transactional. When it invokes the saveProduct method of the ProductService, the transaction will be propagated to the nested method.

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Transaction Rollback

By default, Spring rolls back a transaction when a runtime exception is thrown. However, we can control the rollback behavior using the @Transactional annotation’s rollbackFor and noRollbackFor attributes.

For example, let’s say we want to rollback the transaction only for specific exceptions:

@Transactional(rollbackFor = {CustomException.class})
public void performTransaction() {
  // Perform some database operations
  if (someCondition) {
    throw new CustomException();

In the above code, the transaction will be rolled back only if a CustomException is thrown. Other exceptions will not trigger a rollback.


Transactions are an essential aspect of database management in any Spring application. With Spring and JPA, we can easily configure and manage transactions using annotations or XML configuration. By leveraging the power of Spring’s declarative transaction management, we can focus on our business logic without worrying about low-level transaction handling.

So, the next time you’re working on a Spring application with JPA, remember to embrace the power of transactions to ensure data integrity and consistency.

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