Top 20 ReactJS Interview Questions and Answers
Top 20 ReactJS Interview Questions and Answers

Welcome to our comprehensive guide on the top 20 ReactJS interview questions and answers for 2024! Whether you are a seasoned React developer or just starting out, these questions will help you prepare for your next ReactJS interview and showcase your expertise in this popular JavaScript library.

ReactJS is an open-source JavaScript library developed by Facebook for building user interfaces. It allows developers to create reusable UI components and efficiently update and render them when the data changes, resulting in fast and responsive web applications.

Read more to learn about the key features of ReactJS, the difference between ReactJS and React Native, the significance of the ‘render’ method in ReactJS, React Hooks, data binding in React, optimizing React application performance, handling errors in React, and more.


Welcome to our comprehensive guide on the top 50 ReactJS interview questions and answers for 2024! Whether you are a seasoned React developer or just starting out, these questions will help you prepare for your next ReactJS interview and showcase your expertise in this popular JavaScript library.

1. What is ReactJS?

ReactJS is an open-source JavaScript library developed by Facebook for building user interfaces. It allows developers to create reusable UI components and efficiently update and render them when the data changes, resulting in fast and responsive web applications.

2. What are the key features of ReactJS?

ReactJS offers several key features that make it a popular choice for building web applications:

  • Virtual DOM: React uses a virtual DOM to track changes and efficiently update only the necessary components, resulting in better performance.
  • Component-based Architecture: React follows a component-based approach, allowing developers to build reusable UI components.
  • JSX: React uses JSX, a syntax extension for JavaScript, to write HTML-like code within JavaScript, making it easier to build and maintain UI components.
  • Unidirectional Data Flow: React follows a unidirectional data flow, where data flows only in one direction, making it easier to understand and debug the application.
  • High performance: React updates only those components that have changed, rather than updating all the components at once. This results in much faster web applications.

3. What is the difference between ReactJS and React Native?

  • ReactJS is a JavaScript library used for building web applications, while React Native is a framework used for building native mobile applications.
  • React Native allows developers to write code in JavaScript and then compile it into native code for iOS and Android platforms, resulting in a more efficient development process.

4. What is the significance of the “render” method in ReactJS?

The “render” method in ReactJS is responsible for rendering the UI components onto the screen. It returns a React element, which describes what should be displayed on the screen. The “render” method is called whenever there is a change in the component’s state or props, and it updates the UI accordingly.

  • It is required for each component to have a render() function. This function returns the HTML, which is to be displayed in the component.
  • If you need to render more than one element, all of the elements must be inside one parent tag like <div>, <form>.

5. What are React Hooks?

React Hooks are functions that allow developers to use state and other React features in functional components. They provide a way to use stateful logic without writing a class component. Some commonly used React Hooks include useState, useEffect, and useContext.

6. What is the purpose of the “useState” Hook?

The “useState” Hook is used to add state to functional components in React. It allows developers to declare a state variable and a function to update that variable. The “useState” Hook returns an array with two elements: the current state value and a function to update the state.

7. How does React handle data binding?

React uses a concept called “props” to handle data binding. Props are used to pass data from a parent component to its child components. By updating the props in the parent component, React triggers a re-rendering of the child components, ensuring that the UI stays in sync with the data.

8. What is the significance of the “key” prop in React?

The “key” prop is used to uniquely identify elements in a list of components. It helps React identify which items have changed, been added, or been removed. Using a unique “key” prop improves the performance of the application by allowing React to update only the necessary components.

9. How can you optimize the performance of a React application?

There are several ways to optimize the performance of a React application:

  • Use the virtual DOM efficiently by minimizing the number of DOM updates.
  • Implement code splitting to load only the necessary components when needed.
  • Use React.memo to memoize components and prevent unnecessary re-renders.
  • Optimize the size of images and other assets used in the application.
  • Use shouldComponentUpdate or React.memo to prevent unnecessary re-renders of components.

10. How can you handle errors in React?

In React, you can handle errors using error boundaries. Error boundaries are React components that catch JavaScript errors anywhere in their child component tree and display a fallback UI instead of crashing the entire application. Error boundaries are implemented using the componentDidCatch lifecycle method.

11. What is a component in React?

A component is a reusable and independent piece of UI that can contain its own logic and state. Components can be functional or class-based.

In React, components are the building blocks of a user interface. They are reusable, self-contained pieces of code that define how a part of the user interface should appear and behave. React components can be broadly categorized into two types: Class Components and Functional Components. Here’s an overview of each:

Class Components

  • Class Component (ES6 Class): The traditional way of creating components in React. It extends the React.Component class and must include a render method.

import React, { Component } from 'react';

class MyComponent extends Component {
  render() {
    return<div>Hello, I am a Class Component!</div>; } } export default MyComponent; 
  • State: Class components can manage local state, allowing them to hold and modify data within the component.

class Counter extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    this.state = { count: 0 };

  render() {
    return (
       <div>  <p>Count: {this.state.count}</p>  <button onClick={() => this.setState({ count: this.state.count + 1 })}> Increment </button>  </div>  ); } }

Functional Components:

  • Functional Component (ES6 Arrow Function): Introduced with React Hooks, these components are simpler and more concise than class components.

import React from 'react';

const MyComponent = () => {
  return<div>Hello, I am a Functional Component!</div>; }; export default MyComponent;
  • Hooks: Functional components can use hooks like useState and useEffect to manage state and perform side effects.

import React, { useState, useEffect } from 'react';

const Counter = () => {
  const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

  useEffect(() => {
    document.title = `Count: ${count}`;
  }, [count]);

  return ( <div> <p>Count: {count}</p>  <button onClick={() => setCount(count + 1)}>Increment</button>  </div>  ); };


  • A common pattern in React is to return multiple elements from a component. The React.Fragment component or its shorthand <>...</> can be used to group elements without introducing an extra parent node.

const FragmentExample = () => {
  return (
    <> <p>Element 1</p> <p>Element 2</p>  </>  ); };

These are the fundamental types of components in React, and they can be combined and reused to build complex user interfaces. Additionally, there are advanced concepts like Higher-Order Components (HOCs) and Render Props that enable further composition and reusability.

12. What is a state in React?

In React, a state is a built-in object that represents the mutable data in a component. It allows components to manage and store dynamic information that can change over time. The state is a critical concept in React because it enables components to be interactive and responsive to user actions.

Here are some key points about the state in React:

  • State Initialization: The state is initialized in the constructor of a class component using this.state. It is set as an object where each property represents a piece of data.
class MyComponent extends React.Component {
     constructor(props) {
          this.state = {
               counter: 0,
               username: '',
  • Updating State: The setState method is used to update the state. It merges the provided object into the current state. React then re-renders the component to reflect the updated state.
handleIncrement = () => {
    this.setState({ counter: this.state.counter + 1 });

Note: Directly modifying the state using this.state is not recommended, as it may not trigger a re-render, leading to unexpected behavior.

  • Asynchronous State Updates: setState may be asynchronous, and React may batch multiple state updates for better performance. To ensure you are working with the latest state, use the callback form of setState.
this.setState((prevState) => ({ 
     counter: prevState.counter + 1 
  • Functional Components and Hooks: With the introduction of React Hooks, functional components can now use the useState hook to manage state.
import React, { useState } from 'react'; 
const MyComponent = () => { 
      const [counter, setCounter] = useState(0); 
      return ( 
                 <p>Counter: {counter}</p> 
                 <button onClick={() => setCounter(counter + 1)}>Increment</button> 
  • Immutable State: State should be treated as immutable. Instead of modifying the state directly, you create a new object with the updated values. This helps in maintaining a clear history of state changes.
this.setState((prevState) => ({ 
      username: 'newUsername', 

The state is essential for handling user interactions, managing data changes, and building dynamic and interactive React applications. It provides a mechanism for components to maintain and update their internal data over time, ensuring a responsive user interface.

13. What are props in React?

In React, “props” is a shorthand for “properties,” and it refers to the mechanism by which data is passed from one component to another. Props are used to send information from a parent component to a child component, allowing for the dynamic and flexible rendering of components based on external data.

Here are key points about props in React:

  • Passing Data: Props are passed down from a parent component to a child component as attributes in the JSX. They allow the parent to share information with its children.
  • Receiving Props: In the child component, props are received as an argument to the functional component or as this.props in a class component.
  • Immutable and Read-Only: Props are considered immutable and should not be modified within the component that receives them. They are read-only and should be treated as such to maintain a clear data flow.
  • Default Props: Components can define default values for props using the defaultProps property. This allows for the rendering of components even if certain props are not provided.
  • Dynamic Rendering: Props enable dynamic rendering of components based on changing data. A single component can be reused with different data, allowing for the creation of scalable and modular UIs.
  • Props Validation: PropTypes can be used to specify the types of props a component should expect. This helps in debugging and ensures that the expected data types are passed.

Props play a crucial role in the React component architecture, allowing for the creation of flexible and reusable components that can adapt to different data and scenarios. They facilitate the flow of data through a React application, enabling components to communicate and work together in a structured manner.

14. What are the differences between state and props?

State and props are both mechanisms to pass data between React components, but they serve different purposes and have some key differences:


  • Definition
    • Class Components Only: State is used in class components and can be initialized and managed within the component using the this.state object.
  • Mutability
    • Mutable: State is mutable and can be modified using the setState method. React will then re-render the component to reflect the updated state.
  • Scope
    • Local: State is local to the component in which it is defined and can’t be accessed by other components unless explicitly passed down as props.


  • Definition
    • Functional and Class Components: Props can be used in both functional and class components and are passed down from a parent component to a child component.
  • Immutability
    • Immutable: Props are immutable; they cannot be modified within the component that receives them. They are read-only and should not be changed.
  • Scope
    • Parent-Child Relationship: Props are used to pass data from a parent component to a child component, enabling communication between them.
  • Default Values
    • Default Values: Components can define default values for props, allowing them to render even if certain props are not provided.

When to Use State or Props?

  • Use State
    • When the data is internal and local to the component.
    • When the data may change over time within the component.
    • When the component needs to re-render based on changes in data.
  • Use Props
    • When passing data from a parent component to a child component.
    • When creating reusable and configurable components.
    • When the data is intended to be read-only within the receiving component.

Understanding when to use state and when to use props is crucial for building maintainable and scalable React applications. State is for managing internal component data, while props facilitate communication between components in a parent-child relationship.

15. Explain the lifecycle methods of components.

In React, components go through a lifecycle during which they are created, updated, and eventually destroyed. These lifecycle methods provide developers with hooks into the different stages of a component’s existence, allowing them to perform actions or implement logic at specific points. The lifecycle methods can be divided into three main phases: Mounting, Updating, and Unmounting.

  • Mounting Phase

    • constructor(props): The constructor is called when a component is first initialized. It is used for setting up the initial state and binding event handlers.
    • static getDerivedStateFromProps(props, state): This static method is called before every render, and it allows a component to update its state based on changes in props.
    • render(): The render method is responsible for returning the JSX that represents the component’s UI. It is a pure function and should not modify the component state.
    • componentDidMount(): This method is called after the component has been rendered to the DOM. It is commonly used for making asynchronous requests for data.
  • Updating Phase:

    • static getDerivedStateFromProps(props, state): This method is called again during the update phase, allowing the component to update its state based on changes in props.
    • shouldComponentUpdate(nextProps, nextState): This method is invoked before rendering, allowing the component to decide whether to re-render or not. It is often used for performance optimization.
    • render(): The render method is called again to update the component’s UI based on the new state or props.
    • getSnapshotBeforeUpdate(prevProps, prevState): This method is called right before the changes from render are committed to the DOM. It allows the component to capture some information from the DOM before it is potentially changed.
    • componentDidUpdate(prevProps, prevState, snapshot): This method is called after the component has been updated in the DOM. It is often used for performing side effects after a component has updated.
  • Unmounting Phase

    • componentWillUnmount(): This method is called just before a component is unmounted and destroyed. It is used for cleanup tasks such as canceling network requests or clearing up subscriptions.

Other Lifecycle Methods (Deprecated in React 16.3 and later)

  • componentWillMount(): Deprecated. Use constructor or componentDidMount instead.
  • componentWillReceiveProps(nextProps): Deprecated. Use static getDerivedStateFromProps instead.
  • componentWillUpdate(nextProps, nextState): Deprecated. Use getSnapshotBeforeUpdate instead.

Error Handling

  • static getDerivedStateFromError(error): Used to catch errors during rendering. It is paired with componentDidCatch.
  • componentDidCatch(error, info): Used for handling errors that occur during the render phase.

Understanding these lifecycle methods is crucial for effective React development, as they provide control points at various stages of a component’s existence. It’s important to note that with the introduction of React Hooks, functional components can now also use lifecycle methods through the useEffect and useLayoutEffect hooks.

16. What is an arrow function and how is it used in React?

An arrow function in JavaScript is a concise way to write a function. Arrow functions were introduced in ECMAScript 6 (ES6) and provide a more concise syntax compared to traditional function expressions.

    • Syntax: Arrow functions have a shorter syntax compared to regular functions. The basic syntax is () => {}.
// Traditional function 
function add(a, b) { 
     return a + b; 
} // Arrow function 
const add = (a, b) => a + b;

    • Implicit Return: If the arrow function body consists of a single expression, it is implicitly returned without needing the return keyword.
const square = (x) => x * x;

  • No this Binding: Arrow functions do not bind their own this value. Instead, they inherit the this value from the enclosing scope, making them suitable for certain use cases in React.
  • No arguments Object: Arrow functions do not have their own arguments object. Instead, they inherit it from the enclosing scope.

Now, let’s see how arrow functions are commonly used in React:

1. Event Handlers in Class Components:

class MyComponent extends React.Component { 
    handleClick = () => { 
        console.log('Button clicked!'); 
    render() { 
         return <button onClick={this.handleClick}>Click me</button>; 

Using an arrow function for the event handler ensures that this inside the function refers to the class instance.

2. Functional Components with Hooks:

import React, { useState, useEffect } from 'react'; 
const MyComponent = () => { 
   const [count, setCount] = useState(0); 
   useEffect(() => { 
         console.log('Component has mounted or updated'); // ... other side effects 
   [count]); // Dependency array 
   const handleClick = () => { 
       setCount(count + 1); 
   return ( 
            <p>Count: {count}</p> 
            <button onClick={handleClick}>Increment</button> 

Arrow functions are commonly used with functional components, especially when defining event handlers and functional components within the context of React hooks. The concise syntax and lexical scoping make them well-suited for these use cases.

17. What are forms in React?

React employs forms to enable users to interact with web applications.

  • Using forms, users can interact with the application and enter the required information whenever needed. Form contain certain elements, such as text fields, buttons, checkboxes, radio buttons, etc
  • Forms are used for many different tasks such as user authentication, searching, filtering, indexing, etc

18. What is an event in React?

An event is an action that a user or system may trigger, such as pressing a key, a mouse click, etc.

  • React events are named using camelCase, rather than lowercase in HTML.
  • With JSX, you pass a function as the event handler, rather than a string in HTML.

What are the advantages and limitations of React? 

React is not difficult to integrate with other JavaScript frameworks like Meteor, Angular, etc. Writing test cases of UI becomes convenient with this tool. It is an easy tool to use for both the client and on the server-side. Another advantage of React is that it improves app performance. Also, the code has high readability due to JSX.

Now let’s look at some disadvantages.

Firstly, React is a library and not a full-fledged framework. Inline templating and JSX can make the coding complex, which can be a task for novice programmers to grasp. Since the React library is vast, understanding it can be a time-consuming process.

19. What is React JSX?

JSX, or JavaScript XML, is a syntax extension for JavaScript recommended by React for describing what the UI should look like. JSX allows you to write HTML elements and components in a syntax that looks similar to XML or HTML but is ultimately translated to JavaScript.

Benefits of using React JSX-

  • SEO friendly
  • React Hooks
  • Virtual DOM
  • Highly efficient
  • Open- source
  • Reusable components
  • Enhance performance
  • Code stability
  • Easier to write with JSX
  • Strong community support

This is how you can respond to react interview question by making a mention of features along with the definition.

20. What do you mean by Flux?

Flux is an architectural pattern used for building user interfaces, and it was developed by Facebook to manage the flow of data in React applications. It complements the React view library by providing a unidirectional data flow, helping to manage state in a predictable way, especially in large and complex applications.

The Flux architecture consists of the following key components:

  • Actions:
    • Actions are plain JavaScript objects that represent events or user interactions in the application. They define the type of event and can include additional data. Actions are typically created by action creators.
  • Action Creators:
    • Action creators are functions responsible for creating and returning action objects. They encapsulate the logic for generating actions and are called from different parts of the application.
  • Dispatcher:
    • The Dispatcher is a central hub that manages the flow of data within the Flux architecture. It receives actions from the action creators and dispatches them to the registered stores.
  • Stores:
    • Stores are responsible for managing the application state and handling actions. They listen to the actions dispatched by the Dispatcher, update their state accordingly, and notify the views (React components) about the changes.
  • Views (React Components):
    • Views are responsible for rendering the user interface based on the data provided by the stores. When the stores update their state in response to actions, the views re-render to reflect the changes.

The flow of data in Flux is unidirectional, meaning that data changes occur in one directionfrom the views to the actions, to the dispatcher, to the stores, and back to the views. This unidirectional flow helps to maintain a clear and predictable data flow, making it easier to understand and debug the application.

While Flux itself is a pattern and not a specific library, Facebook has provided a reference implementation of Flux, and there are also popular Flux libraries like Redux that provide similar functionality and are widely used in the React ecosystem. Redux, in particular, has become a standard choice for managing state in React applications.

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Congratulations! You have now covered the top 50 ReactJS interview questions and answers for 2024. By familiarizing yourself with these questions, you are well-prepared to showcase your ReactJS skills and ace your next interview. Remember to keep practicing and exploring the vast world of ReactJS to stay ahead in your career as a React developer.

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